Acute Abdomen

acute abdomen, emergency abdomen The term acute abdomen refers to a sudden, severe abdominal pain that is less than 24 hours in duration. It is in many cases a medical emergency, requiring urgent and specific diagnosis. Several causes need surgical treatment.

The cause of acute abdomen may be 1 of theses :

  • Infection (ex.Appendicitis Acute)
  • Perforation (ex.Ulcer Perforation)
  • Obstruction (ex.Bowel Tumor, Hernia Strangulated)
  • Bleeding (ex.Aneurysm Rupture)
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    Burn Wound

    image A burn is a type of injury that may be caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, light, radiation, or friction.

    Burns can be highly variable in terms of the tissue affected, the severity, and resultant complications. Muscle, bone, blood vessel, and epidermal tissue can all be damaged with subsequent pain due to profound injury to nerves.

    Depending on the location affected and the degree of severity, a burn victim may experience a wide number of potentially fatal complications including shock, infection, electrolyte imbalance and respiratory distress.


    Venomous Snake, Symptoms and Signs

    image Snake: reptilia, subordo serfentes, ordo squamata. Rattlesnake consists of 5 families; elapidae, viperidae, hydropidae, crotalidae, colubridae. Venom contains 2 chemicals that are important components: enzym parts and polipeptida protein. But, in general they are devide to two kind effects : Hemotoxic and Neurotoxic.

    Clinical symptoms:

    I. bite from type viperidae & crotalidae.

    Hemotoxic type of venom.

    Local: bleeding continues at the former bites, pain, edema ekimosis, bula, gangren.

    Systemic: hipotensi, fever, heavy coughing, vomiting blood, melena, gross hematuri - acute kidney failure.

    Classification of PARRISH

    Grade 0: edema & eritema <2.5 cm / 12 hours I.

    Grade I: 2.5 - 12.5 cm / 12 hours I.

    Grade II: 15 - 30 cm / 12 hours I.

    Grade III:> 30 cm / 12 hours I.

    Grade IV, "through extremity / 12 hours I.

    Grade II, III, IV systemic interference occurs: hipotensi, nausea, vomiting. Grade IV : coma.

    II. Type of Elapidae bites.

    Contains Neurotoksin Venom . Local: minimal pain, edema. Systemic: ptosis & trismus, speech & swallow hard, paralise tongue & laryng, salivasi, diplopia, nausea & vomiting, respiratory muscle paralise - failed breath.

    III. Hydropidae type of bite. Can be neurotoxic.

    How to estimates venomous or not?

    I. If snakes can be arrested. Pupil progressively more rounded not poisonous. Have canine teeth poisonous.

    II. The form of bite wounds. Half circle not poisonous, have two hole from canine puncture is poisonous.


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