Venomous Snake, Symptoms and Signs

image Snake: reptilia, subordo serfentes, ordo squamata. Rattlesnake consists of 5 families; elapidae, viperidae, hydropidae, crotalidae, colubridae. Venom contains 2 chemicals that are important components: enzym parts and polipeptida protein. But, in general they are devide to two kind effects : Hemotoxic and Neurotoxic.

Clinical symptoms:

I. bite from type viperidae & crotalidae.

Hemotoxic type of venom.

Local: bleeding continues at the former bites, pain, edema ekimosis, bula, gangren.

Systemic: hipotensi, fever, heavy coughing, vomiting blood, melena, gross hematuri - acute kidney failure.

Classification of PARRISH

Grade 0: edema & eritema <2.5 cm / 12 hours I.

Grade I: 2.5 - 12.5 cm / 12 hours I.

Grade II: 15 - 30 cm / 12 hours I.

Grade III:> 30 cm / 12 hours I.

Grade IV, "through extremity / 12 hours I.

Grade II, III, IV systemic interference occurs: hipotensi, nausea, vomiting. Grade IV : coma.

II. Type of Elapidae bites.

Contains Neurotoksin Venom . Local: minimal pain, edema. Systemic: ptosis & trismus, speech & swallow hard, paralise tongue & laryng, salivasi, diplopia, nausea & vomiting, respiratory muscle paralise - failed breath.

III. Hydropidae type of bite. Can be neurotoxic.

How to estimates venomous or not?

I. If snakes can be arrested. Pupil progressively more rounded not poisonous. Have canine teeth poisonous.

II. The form of bite wounds. Half circle not poisonous, have two hole from canine puncture is poisonous.

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